Title Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (M-WCST): Normative data for Spanish-speaking pediatric population
Authors Arango-Lasprilla, J. C., Rivera, D., Nicholls, E., Aguayo Arelis, A., Garcia de la Cadena, C., Penalver Guia, A. I., Vergara-Moragues, E., Rodriguez-Lorenzana, A., Marin-Morales, A., Soto-Anari, M., Lara, L., Rodriguez-Agudelo, Y., Alcazar Tebar, C., Galarza-del-Angel, J., Rodriguez-Irizarry, W., IBAÑEZ ALFONSO, JOAQUÍN ALEJANDRO, Garcia-Guerrero, C. E., Delgado-Mejia, I. D., Pohlenz Amador, S., Sanchez-SanSegundo, M., IBAÑEZ ALFONSO, JOAQUÍN ALEJANDRO
External publication No
Means NeuroRehabilitation
Scope Article
Nature Científica
JCR Quartile 2
SJR Quartile 1
JCR Impact 1.77900
SJR Impact 0.79000
Area International
Web https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85032338314&doi=10.3233%2fNRE-172242&partnerID=40&md5=a1c6283a0c8cd7ef551622dbf337ef54
Publication date 01/01/2017
ISI 000413531000005
Scopus Id 2-s2.0-85032338314
DOI 10.3233/NRE-172242
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To generate normative data for the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (M-WCST) in Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. METHOD: The sample consisted of 4,373 healthy children from nine countries in Latin America (Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico) and Spain. Each participant was administered the M-WCST as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. Number of categories, perseverative errors, and total error scores were normed using multiple linear regressions and standard deviations of residual values. Age, age(2), sex, and mean level of parental education (MLPE) were included as predictors in the analyses. RESULTS: The final multiple linear regression models indicated main effects for age on all scores, such that the number of categories correct increased and total number of perseverative errors and total number of errors decrease linearly as a function of age. Age(2) had a significant effect in Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, and Spain for numbers of categories; a significant effect for number of perseverative errors in Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Spain; and a significant effect for number of total errors in Chile, Cuba, Peru, and Spain. Models showed an effect for MLPE in Cuba (total errors), Ecuador (categories and total errors), Mexico (all scores), Paraguay (perseverative errors and total error), and Spain (categories and total errors). Sex affected number of total errors for Ecuador. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest Spanish-speaking pediatric normative study in the world, and it will allow neuropsychologists from these countries to have a more accurate way to interpret the M-WCST with pediatric populations.
Keywords Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; neuropsychology; Spanish-speaking populations; pediatric population
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