Title The modulating effect of education on semantic interference during healthy aging
Authors Paolieri, Daniela, Marful, Alejandra, MORALES MÁRQUEZ, LUIS, Teresa Bajo, Maria, MORALES MÁRQUEZ, LUIS
External publication No
Means PLoS ONE
Scope Article
Nature Científica
JCR Quartile 2
SJR Quartile 1
JCR Impact 2.77600
Area International
Web https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85041051911&doi=10.1371%2fjournal.pone.0191656&partnerID=40&md5=7dc33aea89b03259bb854d40a423a58e
Publication date 25/01/2018
ISI 000423416600073
Scopus Id 2-s2.0-85041051911
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0191656
Abstract Aging has traditionally been related to impairments in name retrieval. These impairments have usually been explained by a phonological transmission deficit hypothesis or by an inhibitory deficit hypothesis. This decline can, however, be modulated by the educational level of the sample. This study analyzed the possible role of these approaches in explaining both object and face naming impairments during aging. Older adults with low and high educational level and young adults with high educational level were asked to repeatedly name objects or famous people using the semantic-blocking paradigm. We compared naming when exemplars were presented in a semantically homogeneous or in a semantically heterogeneous context. Results revealed significantly slower rates of both face and object naming in the homogeneous context (i.e., semantic interference), with a stronger effect for face naming. Interestingly, the group of older adults with a lower educational level showed an increased semantic interference effect during face naming. These findings suggest the joint work of the two mechanisms proposed to explain age-related naming difficulties, i.e., the inhibitory deficit and the transmission deficit hypothesis. Therefore, the stronger vulnerability to semantic interference in the lower educated older adult sample would possibly point to a failure in the inhibitory mechanisms in charge of interference resolution, as proposed by the inhibitory deficit hypothesis. In addition, the fact that this interference effect was mainly restricted to face naming and not to object naming would be consistent with the increased age-related difficulties during proper name retrieval, as suggested by the transmission deficit hypothesis.
Keywords adult; aged; article; controlled study; education; female; healthy aging; human; human experiment; information retrieval; joint; male; young adult; adolescent; attention; cognitive aging; education; f
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