Title Tramadol effects on physical performance and sustained attention during a 20-min indoor cycling time-trial: A randomised controlled trial
Authors Holgado, Darias, Zandonai, Thomas, Zabala, Mikel, Hopker, James, PERAKAKIS , PANTELIS, Luque-Casado, Antonio, Ciria, Luis, Guerra-Hernandez, Eduardo, Sanabria, Daniel, PERAKAKIS , PANTELIS
External publication No
Means J. Sci. Med. Sport
Scope Article
Nature Científica
JCR Quartile 1
SJR Quartile 1
JCR Impact 3.62300
Area International
Web https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85034434710&doi=10.1016%2fj.jsams.2017.10.032&partnerID=40&md5=bbdb6fb580cd3a93a16e551041f37119
Publication date 01/07/2018
ISI 000436384000003
Scopus Id 2-s2.0-85034434710
DOI 10.1016/j.jsams.2017.10.032
Abstract Objectives: To investigate the effect of tramadol on performance during a 20-min cycling time-trial (Experiment 1), and to test whether sustained attention would be impaired during cycling after tramadol intake (Experiment 2). Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Methods: In Experiment 1, participants completed a cycling time-trial, 120-min after they ingested either tramadol or placebo. In Experiment 2, participants performed a visual oddball task during the time-trial. Electroencephalography measures (EEG) were recorded throughout the session. Results: In Experiment 1, average time-trial power output was higher in the tramadol vs. placebo condition (tramadol: 220W vs. placebo: 209W; p<0.01). In Experiment 2, no differences between conditions were observed in the average power output (tramadol: 234W vs. placebo: 230W; p>0.05). No behavioural differences were found between conditions in the oddball task. Crucially, the time frequency analysis in Experiment 2 revealed an overall lower target-locked power in the beta-band (p<0.01), and higher alpha suppression (p<0.01) in the tramadol vs. placebo condition. At baseline, EEG power spectrum was higher under tramadol than under placebo in Experiment 1 while the reverse was true for Experiment 2. Conclusions: Tramadol improved cycling power output in Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2, which may be due to the simultaneous performance of a cognitive task. Interestingly enough, the EEG data in Experiment 2 pointed to an impact of tramadol on stimulus processing related to sustained attention. Trial registration: EudraCT number: 2015-005056-96. Crown Copyright (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.
Keywords Doping in sport; Opioid analgesic; Athletes; EEG; Exercise; Brain
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