Title The Calcium-Looping (CaCO3/CaO) process for thermochemical energy storage in Concentrating Solar Power plants
External publication No
Means Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev.
Scope Article
Nature Científica
JCR Quartile 1
SJR Quartile 1
JCR Impact 12.11000
Area International
Publication date 01/10/2019
ISI 000483422600024
DOI 10.1016/j.rser.2019.109252
Abstract Energy storage based on thermochemical systems is gaining momentum as a potential alternative to molten salts in Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants. This work is a detailed review about the promising integration of a CaCO3/CaO based system, the so-called Calcium-Looping (CaL) process, in CSP plants with tower technology. The CaL process relies on low cost, widely available and non-toxic natural materials (such as limestone or dolomite), which are necessary conditions for the commercial expansion of any energy storage technology at large scale. A comprehensive analysis of the advantages and challenges to be faced for the process to reach a commercial scale is carried out. The review includes a deep overview of reaction mechanisms and process integration schemes proposed in the recent literature. Enhancing the multicycle CaO conversion is a major challenge of the CaL process. Many lab-scale analyses carried out show that residual effective CaO conversion is highly dependent on the process conditions and the CaO precursors used, reaching values in a wide range (0.07-0.82). The selection of the optimal operating conditions must be based on materials performance, process integration, technology and economics aspects. Global plant efficiencies over 45% (without considering solar-side losses) show the interest of the technology. Furthermore, the technological maturity and potential of the process is assessed. The direction towards which future works should be headed is discussed.
Keywords Calcium looping; Concentrating solar power; Thermochemical energy storage; Dispatchability; Solar tower; Particle receiver; Solar calcination; CaO deactivation
Universidad Loyola members